Ni Ketut Sari

Department of Chemical Engineering

Industrial Technology Faculty UPN ”Veteran” East Java

Jl. Raya Rungkut Madya-Gunung Anyar-Surabaya Telp : (031)8782179



Produce bioethanol from fermentation filtrate bulrush to look for bioethanol alternative raw material and study sour hydrolysis process and ferment. Bulrush availibility can be obtained by continue and abundance, representing one of the less exploited crop. Bulrush only used as by livestock food, sometimes bulrush is also considered to be intruder crop. But bulrush have cellulose rate able to be used as one of the ethanol producer materials. Till now consume world ethanol about 63 % for the fuel, especially in Brazil, North America, Canadian, Uni Europe, and Australian. In Asia, JapanAnd biggest South Koreaethanol consumption is to liquor. In this research  to process hydrolysis at condition remain to: temperature 30oC, HCL condensation volume 700 ml., hydrolysis time two until three hour and condition change: bulrush weight 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 (gram), HCL condensation 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 (ml). Is later then continued by ferment process at condition remain to: temperature 20 until 30 (0C), pH 4,5; fermentation volume 250 ml and condition change: fermentation time 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 (day), starter 8 %, 10 %, 12 %. To obtain get purer ethanol product to distillation process, from research which have to be obtained by result, at best glucose rate hydrolysis process 26.29%, dry bulrush weight 200 gram and pH 4.5 At best condition ferment process use saccharomyces cerevisiae starter 10 % during 6 day, yielding ethanol 9 until 12 (%) before distillation and after distillation yield ethanol equal to 96 % and glucose rate is rest 8.09 %. From result of which is obtained, bulrush can be used as alternative raw material make bio-ethanol.

Keyword: bioethanol, bulrush, fermentation, hydrolysis


Ethanol or ethyl alcohol sometime referred as also ethanol spirit, ethanol used in industrial immeasurable like mixture for the liquor of like sake or gin, raw material of pharmacy and cosmetic, fuel mixture, more octane and gasoline ethanol (gasohol). To date consume the ethanol world of about 63 percent for the fuel, especially in Brazil, North America, Canadian, Uni Europe, and Australian. In Asia, biggest consumption of ethanol is to liquor. Ethanol’s functions as fuel mixture have the good prospect because price of crude oil more and more high. This ethanol function as adder of volume BBM, as more octane number and oxygen source for the combustion cleaner of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) substitution. Because ethanol contain 35 percent oxygen, can improve the combustion efficiency, ethanol also environmental friendliness because gas emission throw away the low degree carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and glasshouse gas becoming pollutant also easy to raveled and peaceful because do not contaminate environment.

Obtainable ethanol from various agricultural produce substances, in general the substance divided into three factions that is: first, pregnant substance of sugar generation as first faction for example molasses, cane sugar, beet sugar and juice. Second, pregnant substance extract of like bulk (grist, potato, tapioca). Third, substance that contain of cellulose (wood and some agriculture waste). Pregnant substance of monosakarida (C6H12O6) as direct glucose earn the ferment become the ethanol, however disaccharide ( extract), complex carbohydrate have to hydrolyzed beforehand become the simple component in the form of monosaccharide. Disaccharide like sand sugar (C12H22O11) have to hydrolyze become the glucose, polysaccharide like cellulose have to be altered beforehand become the glucose. Chemically process the long ambulatory ferment enough, because happen a reaction row which is each influenced by special enzyme.

Bulrush represents the annual crop upstanding, taking root in and high with slender short. High stem can reach 2-4 meter (even reach 6-7 meter), with stem diameter can reach more than 3 cm and composed until 20 joint/book. Grow to form the clump widely is clump till 1 meter. Short furry hairless leaf frond till, leaf piece mark with lines under color of wide, its back part become sharp the nutrient content each, every dry substance ton is N: 10-30 kg, P: 2-3 kg, K: 30 kg, Ca: 3-6 kg, Mg and S: 2-3 kg. Obstetrical differ from bulrush is : Harsh protein 5,20 percent ; Harsh fiber : 40,85 percent ; Glucose: 2,84 percent ; Water: 43,61 percent ( Laboratory of OTK UPN ” Veteran” east java, BBLK Surabaya).

Cellulose is polymer alpha-glucose with the tying beta 1 until 4 among set of its glucose, cellulose function upon which structure in plant network in the form mixture polymer homolog and usually accompanied the polysaccharide other dissimilar and immeasurable lignin in number. Cellulose represents the polysaccharide a lot of under the sun can be turned into glucose by hydrolysis acid (Grogginess, 1985).

Hydrolysis acid is hydrolysis with used acid can alter the polysaccharide (extract, cellulose) becoming sugar, in hydrolysis acid usually used acid chloride (HCl) or sulphate acid (H2SO4) with the certain stem. This hydrolysis usually in made special tank from rustproof steel or copper which attributed to pipe channel heater and air intake to arrange the pressure in air (Soebijanto,1986). Cell khamir is microorganism have single cell of the size between: 5-20 micron, fairish usually until 5-10 cross bigger than bacterium, there are assorted form the yeast, and this form of depend on its bisection. Cell khamir often met in single cell, but if cell children not discharged from its mains after bisection, hence will be happened the form so-called pseudomiselum. Motion less khamir, bisection khamir happened by asexual or shoot.

Fermentation process taken is ferment process do not use the oxygen or anaerobe process, arrangement way produce the ethanol from sugar enough complex, concentration substrata, oxygen, and product ethanol, all influencing metabolism khamir, energy live the cell, cell growth, cell bisection, and produce the ethanol. Select the compatible gaur khamir and have the high tolerance to concentration, substrata and alcohol, representing important matter to the make-up of result (Hall, 1985).


Process Development

1. Factors influencing in hydrolysis course

Cellulose from grass can be turned into ethanol with the sour hydrolysis process with the certain rate, process the cellulose hydrolysis must be done with the acid concentrated can yield the glucose (Fieser, 1963). Process this hydrolysis influenced by some factor, among other things:

pH influence the hydrolysis process so that can be yielded a hydrolysis matching with wanted, pH which is good to hydrolysis process is 2.3 (Soebijanto,1986). Temperature also influence the speed process react the hydrolysis, temperature which is good to cellulose hydrolysis about 21oC. Concentration influence fast react the hydrolysis, for the hydrolysis used condensed concentration HCl or condensed H2SO4 (Groggins, 1985).

In course of cellulose hydrolysis in bulrush turned into glucose with the the following reaction:

(C6H10O5)n + n H2O    ……….>    C6H12O6    ……  ( 1)

Glucose                                         Cellulose


2. Factors influencing in ferment course

Ferment first time conducted elementary treatment to seed ferment or starter preparation, where starter diinokulasikan until all ready included into ferment (Dwijoseputro), seed ferment which commonly used saccharomyces cerevisiae. Khamir have the certain growth curve, with the existence of this growth curve knowable hence right time to include the khamir into substrata to ferment. At ferment process, microorganism stand in need of  he good nutrias  to be obtainable result of good ferment, correct nutrias for the supply of microorganism which nitrogen earn can be from addition NH3, ammonium salt, peptone, amino sour, urea. Nitrogen required equal to 400-1000 gram / 1000 L dilution and phosphate required equal to 400 gram/1000 L dilution (Soebijanto. 1986). Other nutrias is ammonium sulphate with the rate 70-400 gram / 100 liter liquid (Judoamidjojo. 1992). PH which is good to bacterium growth is 4.5. At pH 3.5fermentation admit of to walk better and bacterium will be pursued, to arrange the pH can be used condensation of NaOH and HNO3. Temperature which is good to bacterium growth at between: 20-30 0C.  In course of this ferment, glucose from ferment result turned into [by] ethanol with the the following reaction:


C6H12O6   ………………>   2C2H5OH + 2CO2   ……  (2)

Glucose                                 Ethanol


Research Method

Hydrolysis process with condition remain to: temperature 30 0C, volume of condensation water 7000 ml, time 1 clock. Condition change the bulrush weight: 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 (gram), HCL condensation 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 (ml). Ferment process with condition remain to: temperature 30 0C, pH hydrolysis 4.5; ferment volume 500 ml; condition change the time: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 (day); starter: 8%,10%,12%.





Research Procedure

Figure 1: Equipments Process the Hydrolysis and Fermentation

Boldness draws:


1. Churn motor

2. Churn impeller

3. Tank

4. Thermometer

5. Close the cork

6. Hole for the nutrient

7. Close

8. Connector pipe

9. Bottle of bioethanol

10. Ferment bottle


Consider the bulrush as heavy as variable which have been run hydrolysis process with condition remain to: temperature 30 0C, volume of condensation water 7000 ml, time 1 clock. Condition change the bulrush weight: 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 (gram), HCL condensation 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 (ml). Ferment process with condition remain to: temperature 30 0C, pH hydrolysis 4.5; filtering the condensation and take the filtrate for to analyzed glucose and look for the best condition to be conducted by ferment. Ferment volume 500 ml; condition change the time: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 (day); starter: 8%, 10%, 12%; including starter into condensation mentioned in condition anaerobic, later then analyzed bio ethanol.



1. Process the Hydrolysis

After got by result of analysis of glucose rate of early (2.84 % heavy), is hereinafter conducted by a hydrolysis process to break the cellulose which implied in the bulrush become the glucose, result of analysis got for the rate of glucose after hydrolysis shall be as follows:

From figure 2 known that hereafter volume 40 ml tend to happen the stagnation of rate of glucose and degradation of glucose rate. This matter because of too much bulrush included into acid solution of so that hydrolysis bulrush cannot finely. From condition run in course of best glucose rate hydrolysis equal to 37.67 %. Result of this hydrolysis matching with explained by Soebijanto that best pH for the hydrolysis is 2.3, glucose rate used in course of ferment equal to 26.29 % what obtained from hydrolysis process at pH 4 bulrush weigh equal to 200 gram. This condition selected because optimum glucose rate opened by Sardjoko to process the ferment equal to 25 %. Glucose as much 26.29 % ferment will with the variation day and sum up the used starter.


Figure 2: Influence of volume HCl hydrolysis and bulrush weight to glucose rate


2. Process the Fermentation


Figure 3: Influence of volume time fermentation and composition saccharomycess cereviceae to composition ethanol.

At figure 3, time fermentation of sixth day, we can get the highest composition of ethanol with 12% Saccaromyces Cereviceae. The higher composition of Saccaromyces Cereviceae, the higher composition of ethanol we can get. Time of fermentation from fourth until sixth day, shows the high composition of ethanol. And after six until eight day of fermentation, the composition of ethanol will decrease, it happens because of a decreasing of Saccaromyces Cereviceae activity.



In a hydrolysis process, the weight of bulrush 250 grams and HCl 20 mL, we can get 16% composition of glucose. In fermentation process, six days time of fermentation and 12% Saccaromycess Cereviceae, we can get 11% composition of ethanol.



Buckle, KA, (1985), ”Ilmu Pangan”,  Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta.

Dwijoseputro, (1982), ”Dasar – Dasar Mikrobiologi”, Djambatan, Malang.

Fenger D., (1985), ” KAYU (Kimia Ultrastruktur Reaksi-Reaksi)”,  UGM  Press  Yogyakarta.

Fiesser dan Fisser, (1963), ”Pengantar Kimia Organik”, Dhiwantara, Bandung.

Ilroy R. J., (1990), ”Pengantar Budidaya Padang Rumput Tropika”.

Judoamidjojo, Mulyono, (1992), ”Teknologi Fermentasi”, Rajawali Press Jakarta

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Sari N. K., Kuswandi, Nonot S., Renanto Handogo, (2006), “Komparasi Peta Kurva Residu  Sistem Terner ABE Dengan   Metanol-Etanol-1-Propanol”, Jurnal REAKTOR, Jurusan Teknik Kimia UNDIP  Semarang, Vol. 13, No. 2.

Sari N. K., Kuswandi, Nonot S., Renanto Handogo, (2007), “Pemisahan Sistem Biner Etanol-Air Dan Sistem Terner ABE Dengan Distilasi Batch Sederhana”, Jurnal INDUSTRI Jurnal Ilmiah Sains dan Teknologi, Fakultas Teknik Industri ITS Surabaya Vol. 6, No.5.




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